Total Dose is a low (intermediate) dead space needle
that lowers the risk of viral transmission and the loss of active product.
Diameter of 25G, length 16mm.
Objectives and properties
The term "dead space” refers to the volume of fluid remaining within the needle and between the syringe hub and the plunger. This fluid always contains blood because of two common habits:
- Lightly pull the plunger before injection to check if the needle is in a vein
- After injection, drawing some blood into the syringe and injecting it again to retrieve the active product remaining in the dead space volume
As that blood can be contaminated with HIV or HCV, when the paraphernalia is shared, those viruses can be transmitted.
Syringe and needles type has an influence on the viral transmission risk, since the larger the dead space volume is, the riskier it is.
The dead space volume of a combination of a standard
Luer syringe and a detachable needle is 72 to 88µl.
Designed to reduce
that risk, the Total Dose needle is equipped with a thin plastic tube
that fits down into the tip of the syringe, lowering the dead space volume to
In comparison, the dead space volume of an insulin
syringe is 3µl.
Total Dose reduces the risks of viral transmission by
amount of virus that could be left in the used syringe,
survival time of any virus left in the syringe
need to draw blood into the syringe and injecting it again
Low (intermediate) dead space needles have been developed
in 2014 by Exchange Supplies in the UK.
Since 2012, the World Health Organization recommends
the needles exchange programs to distribute low dead space paraphernalia to
people who injects drugs.